Ekman Emotion In The Human Face Pdf Download [TOP]
Ekman Emotion In The Human Face Pdf Download
if only ekman could slap down the psy-ops types. ironically, he doesn’t even believe that the face is the real source of emotion. rather, the “face of the devil” is a composite of body cues (e.g., the voice), environmental cues (e., music), and what’s going on in the person’s mind and body.
in 2000, he found that women are the best at matching emotion labels to faces, and he thinks this leads to more associations in the unconscious mind. in general, men are more adept at spotting recognisable emotions in photos, such as a smiling man, a sad man or a man pouting. women tend to rely on the facial expression to complement a verbal description of an emotion, says crivelli. they may not notice the mouth part of a face as effectively as men do, say the researchers, resulting in a more vague translation of the message.
so while women are better able to identify emotions using a verbal descriptor, they tend to be less adept at decoding the face than men. but that doesnt mean ekmans conclusions are wrong. you cant make good predictions from poor data, says crivelli. the folk theory of emotions holds that each person can recognise about five emotions, but modern research tends to find only four to six.
the most conclusive work ive read suggests that the number of emotions people can recognise is two to three and is actually lower than the five or six people previously thought to exist. this indicates that some emotions may have stronger associations in the visual system, says crivelli. even so, if you want to sort facial expressions into categories, its better to use what people know to describe the expression – smiling, sad, angry, surprised – than to try and assign them numerical labels.
this project set the foundations for more than 30 years of research on the face as an emotion locus, and ekman has achieved remarkable consistency in the expressions he has found associated with each emotion. the most well-known of these is the basic emotion, whose existence he first asserted in the 1970s, and which he has expanded to 12 in total. the basic emotion is perhaps the most useful concept in the study of facial expressions, because it provides a framework that can accommodate differences between cultures. its distinctiveness, and the manner in which it allows communication between individuals, led ekman to propose that basic emotions exist as a signature of the basic mechanisms for social cognition.
ekman suggests that the basic emotions are the only true emotions that humans can feel, as our ancestors did. there have been other lists of candidate emotions, including those by c.v. ramachandran and clive wearing, who argue that in addition to the 12 basic emotions, the face is also able to convey many non-basic emotions. in a recent commentary in the journal of personality and social psychology and a 2013 book, “what are the emotions? biologically based basic emotions,” ekman, then a professor at nyu, explains that such emotions are mislabeled by evolution and carry no biological function. each emotion comes with a facial expression that is unique to it, and which can be reliably observed across cultures.
images were shown for 1 second, and judgments were recorded for each. the judgments were’strongly disagree’ (1), ‘disagree’ (2),’slightly disagree’ (3),’slightly agree’ (4), ‘agree’ (5),’strongly agree’ (6), ‘don’t know’ (7), ‘please answer’ (8), or ‘certainty yes’ (9) or ‘certainty no’ (10). subjects who could not agree for a given photo were categorized as ‘unclear’. a total of 904 subjects from four cultures provided judgments.